Industries – Overview
Water scarcity is a worldwide issue that is felt very much even at the level of local communities on several fronts. The growing need for a sustainable use of water resources is continuously causing public, economic, and regulatory pressures on industries across the board. Diamonox® Technology is that kind of disruptive technology that can significantly affect the industrial water treatment landscape, whose impact transcends the economic gains, and benefits reach all water resources, from lakes, rivers, and coastal areas.
Diamonox Technology exploits the unique electrochemical properties of diamond for the generation of oxidants that destroy pollutants. One of the major advantages of Diamonox Technology is the ability to substitute the use of harmful chemicals in a significantly more economical way than conventional technologies, and often completely removing the hazard of transporting and storing toxic chemicals.
For high water-demanding industries that need to process thousands of gallons of water per day, the economic impact generated with Diamonox Technology is substantial. As each water problem is unique, Diamonox Technology is highly customizable around the actual water problem. ADT has developed several variations of processes that allow Diamonox Technology to fit extremely difficult water treatment challenges. Diamonox Technology is currently applied in several different water situations, such as fracking, metal mining, deep-sea well water injection, refinery, cooling towers, and ozone generators.
Oil and Gas Industry
- Hydraulic Fracturing
- Water Flooding Secondary and Tertiary Oil Recovery
- SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage)
Diamonox Technology is extremely powerful and a cost saving alternative to ordinary water treatment technologies typically used in oil and gas operations. With a small footprint, Diamonox Technology can be used at any stage of the operations, from microbial control (biofilms and planktonic bacteria) to removal of refractory organics and petroleum hydrocarbon.
Relevant Applications: Diamonox® Microbial Control Technology, Diamonox® Ozone Technology
Enhanced Recovery by Prevention of Formation Damage (Injected Water)
The Complete Microbial Control of the injected water using Diamonox Technology can prevent formation damage by biofilms inside the well. This is particularly important for the extraction of natural gas from unconventional formations as well as in secondary and tertiary oil extractions operations as biofilm induced formation damage can significantly impact the expected ultimate recovery (EUR) of the well. Preventing the biofilm formation with Diamonox Microbial Control Technology can increase recovery output by 10-20%.
Mitigate Microbial Induced Corrosion (MIC)
At the injection side, Diamonox Technology can provide complete microbial control of the fresh water for preventing costly microbial induced corrosion (MIC). The reduction of maintenance costs and replacement of parts due to MIC can result in a significant savings over the lifetime of the equipment used in the operations. This is particularly important in remote and inaccessible locations and especially in offshore (deep sea/ocean) operations, where O&M is very onerous.
Enabling Remediation of Flowback (Produced) Water
Diamonox Technology enables the safe disposal of flowback (produced) water by completely destroying (mineralizing) highly refractory organic compounds, petroleum hydrocarbon, residual biocides, and bacteria. The diamond core of Diamonox Technology is capable of generating extremely powerful oxidants such as hydroxyl radicals and persulfate radicals, that can essentially attack all organic matter and convert it into carbon dioxide and water.
Enabling the Reuse of Flowback (Produced) Water
Diamonox Technology enables significant cost savings by allowing the reuse of flowback-produced water. The water can be treated to match the fluid formulation. Importantly, Diamonox-treated water can also be reused in different wells without concerns of causing formation damage due to incompatible biological content.
Environmentally Friendly Water Treatment
Diamonox Technology, when used with brackish water (seawater, flowback, produced) does not need any additional additives. There is no need to store and transport toxic chemicals, resulting also in a significant cost savings. Diamonox-generated mixed oxidants are safe to handle and do not require safety devices.
- Ballast Water Treatment
- Off-shore Water Treatment
- Relevant Applications: Diamonox® Technology for Ballast
It is estimated that the damages due to invasive marine species (IMS) are about $140B along the coasts of the United States only. Diamonox Technology is an economical and environmentally friendly solution for complete IMS control of ballast water. Diamonox Technology can provide ballast water treatment for both new and existing vessels. Because Diamonox Technology uses a slipstream method, old vessels can be easily retrofit.
Diamonox-generated oxidants contained in MOX (hydroxyl radicals, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and chlorine dioxide), are extremely effective at acting as biocides by deactivating planktonic bacteria. They also prevent the formation of chlorine-resistant biofilms that can induce corrosion of pipelines, valves, filters, as well as the tank coating. This results in significant savings in maintenance costs.
Diamonox Technology takes the minimum amount of space on the ship. Since the MOX solution is created on demand during ballasting directly from seawater, there is no need to store either the MOX solution or any other feedstock. MOX generation is done using a slipstream of 1%, therefore Diamonox cells can be placed remotely from the ballast line in a convenient compartment. The limited footprint of a Diamonox Cell for ballast ensures easy retrofitting to existing and old vessels.
Reliability and Performance
Because ADT’s UNCD-Nb electrodes are so stable and reliable, Diamonox Technology can be trusted when most needed. Even in the most hostile marine environments (low temperature, high salinity, and high loads of biological activity), Diamonox lasts at least 10 times longer than competitive technologies. Durability is extremely important in ballasting operations in open sea or where maintenance service is not readily available, reducing the risk of ship downtime.
- Oil Refineries
Relevant Applications: Diamonox® AOP Technology, Diamonox® Refractory Organics Technology
In industrial applications, the remediation or the reuse of solvents used for the separation of petrol hydrocarbons produces large quantities of toxic and highly refractory wastewater. Diamonox Technology exploits the extraordinary properties of diamond to generate powerful radicals (hydroxyl and sulfate radicals) that can easily mineralize highly refractory organic compounds. Conventional technologies are often very complex, expensive, and only capable of recovering part of the solvent used. The possibility of completely eliminating these highly refractory compounds opens up new ways for the refinery industry to reduce remediation damages, decreasing maintenance and operation costs.
Complete Mineralization of Refractory Organics and Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Diamonox Technology is capable of completely destroying (mineralizing) highly refractory organic compounds. The diamond core of Diamonox Technology is able to generate extremely powerful oxidants, such as hydroxyl radicals and persulfate radicals that can essentially attack all organic matter and convert it into carbon dioxide and water. High order oxidants generated by Diamonox Technology can efficiently mineralize most of the petroleum hydrocarbons.
Tailored Processes to Specific Needs
Diamonox Technology can be tailored to help meet the discharge requirements. Advanced Diamond Technologies has developed a series of processes for the removal of highly refractory organics. Complete destruction (below the detection limits) is achievable with Diamonox Technology.
Food & Medical Industry
- Household appliances
- Medical Applications
- Food disinfection upon contact
Relevant Applications: Diamonox® Technology for Ozone
Ozone is a very powerful oxidant that can be used for disinfection. Declared GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) by the FDA and USDA for food processing, when generated in drinking water ozone decomposes to regular oxygen fairly quickly, within a few minutes leaving behind no harmful residues or bad odors. Other common disinfection methods, like chlorination, could generate harmful disinfection by-products, and therefore not always suitable for food disinfection or medical applications. Some municipal drinking water systems utilize ozone instead of chlorine.
Advanced Diamond Technologies has been able to transfer the UNCD technology to the microfabrication level by maintaining the same unique properties of the diamond. Wafer-size electrodes can be fabricated using standard clean-room techniques for considerable cost reductions at high volumes. Miniaturized Diamonox Ozone Technology enables point-generation directly where needed like in faucets and other appliances.
Chemically and Biologically Inert
Because of its inertness, UNCD electrodes are completely resistant to fouling, making this technology extremely suited for sensitive applications such as medical and pharmaceutical.
UNCD® electrodes are extremely durable (they don’t delaminate even under reverse polarity). Compared to similar technologies, the ozone generator made by UNCD electrodes is substantially more durable as it does not cause damage to the membrane (low heat and no delamination). Diamonox Ozone technology can operate for hundreds of hours.