Diamonox Technology

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Diamonox® Product Overview

Diamonox technology is an extremely versatile and durable electrochemical process that can be deployed in a wide variety of industrial applications where water treatments are extremely challenging. In each sector Diamonox Technology can provide specific benefits depending on the mode of operations.

Diamonox Technology can be grouped in three major categories, which have significantly different applications depending on the applied field.

Three Major Water Categories

Diamonox® Technology for Frac Flowback and Produced Water

Diamonox Technology provides a unique and attractive opportunity for the oil & gas industry to capitalize on a proprietary technology that increases production output, while improving the quality of the recycled water by destroying hydrocarbons, as well as bacteria and biofilms while eliminating the top environmental concerns and increasing on-site safety.

Diamonox Technology enables water treatment for the safe disposal and/or reuse of flowback and produced water by completely destroying (mineralizing) highly refractory organic compounds, petroleum hydrocarbon, residual biocides, residual polymers, and bacteria. The diamond core of Diamonox Technology can generate extremely powerful oxidants, such as hydroxyl radicals that can in turn attack essentially all organic matter, converting it into carbon dioxide and water.

Diamonox Technology enables the recycle of frac flowback and produced water in an extremely economic way. The intrinsic high salt content of the water can be converted into biocides that can keep tailing ponds, frac tanks, and other equipment free of bacteria and biofilms for days. Diamonox Technology with ultrananocrystalline diamond electrodes is extremely durable and can withstand:

  • High current densities (vs. competing technologies)
  • Reverse polarity for scale removal
  • Highly abrasive waters containing residual proppant/sand (that’s diamond!!)

Diamonox Technology is an all-in-one solution that can replace other technologies such as:

  • Micro-bubblers
  • Walnut shells
  • Electrocoagulators
  • Activated carbon

Hydraulic Fracturing

Hydraulic Fracturing

The economics of gas and oil production is not simply related to the actual extraction of the crude, but also in maintaining and operating all water treatment processes on and off site. Economic water treatment, disposal, and recycling are essential processes for keeping the profitability of the operation.

Diamonox Technology can be used for the complete microbial control of the water. This is extremely important, as it can prevent irreversible formation damage. Some formation with low permeability can be extremely sensitive with biofilm growth around the proppant and cause a significant loss in recovery. Mitigating the formaton of biofilms in the wellbore can significantly increase productivity.

Frac Flowback Water Treatment
Diamonox Technology can be employed at different stages of the water recycle process. It can be employed for a complete microbial control of ponds and storage tanks, and also for completely removing oil, grease, hydrocarbon, and metals. The frac flowback water itself can be use as the only feedstock. Diamonox Technology can convert the wastewater into a powerful combination of mixed oxidants.

Waterflooding: Injection Water Treatment
Mitigation of formation damage induced by microbial contamination of the water source can be achieved by treating the water with Diamonox Technology. Mixed oxidants generated by Diamonox Technology are powerful biocides and can remove biofilms from equipment, preventing microbe-induced corrosion (MIC).

Produced Water Treatment
Produced water can be processed with Diamonox Technology as it completely eliminates oil and grease, residual hydrocarbons, metals and H2S, and bacteria.

Diamonox Technology for Total Microbial Control

Diamonox-generated mixed oxidants (MOX) are extremely powerful against waterborne pathogens, chlorine resistant bacteria, and biofilms. The unique electrochemical properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD®) allows the generation of high order oxidants, more than any other similar technology on the market.

Electrochemical electrolysis of water containing salt, such as sodium chloride, can result in the formation of active species that in combination have an extremely high disinfection power.

Diamonox-generated mixed oxidants contain:

  • Hypochlorous acid
  • Hypochlorite ions
  • Dissolved chlorine (trace amounts)
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Dissolved ozone
  • Chlorine dioxide (trace amounts)
  • Other reactive oxygen species

The combined strength of these active oxidants is superior to any other disinfecting agent on the market.

Deactivation of Bacteria and Waterborne Pathogens
The powerful combination of the higher order oxidants in the mixed oxidants solution results in a potent action against bacteria, especially chlorine-resistant pathogens.

Removal of Biofilms
The presence of dissolved gases such as chlorine dioxide, ozone, and chlorine is extremely efficient in the actual removal of biofilms, even the more mature ones.

ow Residual Concentration
The overall strength of MOX is such that for maintaining the water free of microbial contaminants, a low dosage of MOX is necessary. This brings significant operation savings in the first months of operations.

Diamonox Technology for Cooling Tower Water Treatment

Advanced Diamond Technologies delivers a smarter disinfection solution to improve cooling tower efficiency and safety. Diamonox systems have a proven track record for eliminating legionella, biofilm and other performance inhibiting waterborne organisms, allowing your system to get back to the business of cooling.

Diamonox systems use an electrolytic process to convert brine of common salt (NaCl) into a solution of mixed oxidants on-site and on-demand. Mixed oxidants are proven to be more effective than straight sodium hypochlorite and eliminate the need to transport, handle, or store hazardous chemicals.

Diamonox Model 80 System
Cooling Tower System Schematics

Aggressive Disinfection
Diamonox-generated mixed oxidants elimination biofilms, deactivate pathogenic microorganisms including Legionella species, and lower aerobic bacteria counts, all without additional biocides.

Safe Operations
Only salt, water, and power are used to generate the non-hazardous solution (8,000 ppm FAC equivalent). Mixed-oxidant solution eliminates the liability exposure and associated management costs.

Costs Competitive
Mixed oxidants are generated on site, eliminating significantly the need and costs associated with safety, transportation, handling, and storage of other biocides.

Low Maintenance
Diamonox automated systems require only minimal operator attention. Reverse polarity and acid wash for scale removal are programmed for minimizing operator errors, which can lead to unnecessary maintenance costs.

Diamonox Technology for Ballast

Electrolytic treatment of ballast water for the deactivation of invasive marine species (IMS) is probably one of the most effective processes available on the market. Diamonox Technology, when applied to ballast water treatment, can rapidly and effectively deactivate bacteria, zooplankton, and other marine species. The powerful combination of mixed oxidants generated by Diamonox Technology is also extremely potent against the formation of biofilms that can damage tanks coatings. The residual content in the ballast tanks ensure that no bacteria will grow during voyage.

In order to minimize the impact of retrofitting existing vessels, Diamonox can generate MOX solutions utilizing a small percentage of the ballasting water flow, 1% to 5%. The ballasting slipstream avoids removing the already existing ballasting pipe, reducing the upgrade costs. Diamonox cells can then be installed in other compartments of the vessels where more suitable space is available, saving precious cargo space. Using this method, any vessel size can be accommodated up to 25,000 m3/h. Water treatment occurs over the ballasting process, while during deballasting the water is conventionally treated to neutralize residual chlorine.

Low Capex and Opex
Diamonox Technology is a low capital expense. Because of the high durability of the UNCD electrodes it also combines low maintenance costs over its entire lifetime. Operating costs are also limited to the consumption of the electrical power only. A system for 5,000 m3/h can be operated at 300kW. No additional chemicals are required.

Resistant to Fouling
The generation of MOX from seawater during the ballasting process delivers constant ppm of FAC that can be dosed into the ballast line accordingly to the final concentration. As preventive action for avoiding unwanted fouling of the tank, Diamonox can also be used to generate MOX while in voyage in order to maintain the proper level of FAC residual in the tank. Due to the intrinsic properties of diamond, UNCD electrodes are 100% resistant to fouling even when they are not energized to produce MOX.

Scale Removal
Automatic reverse polarity cleans the electrodes from scale buildup. UNCD electrodes have proprietary technology that allows them to be stable at cathodic currents. Scale removal extends the lifetime of the Diamonox ballast water treatment, resulting in significant cost savings from maintenance services and part replacement.

Extreme Durability
UNCD-Niobium electrodes are the most durable diamond electrodes on the market, at least 10 times more stable than competitive technologies. Therefore electrodes don’t need to be replaced as often, reducing significant maintenance time and cost.

Diamonox Technology for Ozone

Diamonox Technology can be configured in a zero-gap electrochemical cell that utilizes solid polymer electrolytes. This configuration is particularly suitable (and well known) for the generation of ozone for diverse disinfection applications. Diamonox Technology takes advantage of the extreme electrochemical properties of diamond for the generation of ozone directly from tap water. Conventional technologies are not capable of generating high levels of ozone in an economic way, whereas Diamonox Technology can.

Generation of High Concentrations of Ozone
Diamonox Technology can generate high concentrations of ozone directly from the water. Competitive technologies like corona discharge produce large quantities of ozone, but they are greatly affected by the quality (humidity and oxygen concentration) of the air used. Diamonox generates ozone directly from the water and at high concentrations (up to 20ppm).

Chemically and Biologically Inert Diamond
The chemical and biological inertness of diamond makes Diamonox Ozone Technology especially suitable for sensitive applications, such as for food and medical.

Scalability by Microfabrication Techniques
Advanced Diamond Technologies has been able to transfer the UNCD technology to the microfabrication level by maintaining the same unique properties of the diamond. Wafer-size electrodes can be fabricated using standard clean-room techniques for considerable cost reductions at high volumes. Miniaturized Diamonox Ozone Technology enables point-generation directly where needed like in faucets and other household appliances.

Low Power Consumption
The zero-gap configuration is particularly suitable for the generation of ozone with low power consumption. In addition to that, Diamonox Technology exploits the unique electrochemical properties of diamond for generating ozone using much less current than other conventional electrolytic processes.

Long Term Durability
The low-current generation of ozone with Diamonox Technology avoids the unnecessary overheating of the solid polymer membrane, extending its lifetime by at least one order of magnitude.

Diamonox AOP Technology for Refractory Organics

The removal of organic matter from water to sub-ppm levels can be a very demanding task. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are technologies that can generate powerful oxidants such as hydroxyl radicals that can decompose any organic contaminant present in the water. Diamonox Technology is capable of generating a variety of high order oxidants from water in a very economically efficient way. The unique properties of Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) allows Diamonox AOP Technology to be particularly suitable for the mineralization of highly refractory organics.

Cost competitive CAPEX and OPEX
From a direct head to head comparison1 with current AOP technologies, there is clearly a strong economic benefit of integrating Diamonox Technology into water treatment systems. Diamonox technology reduces the need for expensive chemical, lowering the cost of ownership.

[1] Technology-cost estimates for different AOP technologies obtained from the National Water Research Institute in the report “Treatment Technologies for the Removal of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) from Drinking Water”, available online at http://www.nwri-usa.org/MTBE.htm

High power conversion efficiency
Diamonox is more efficient at converting electrical energy (kWh) into powerful oxidants (radicals). Consequently the amount of feedstock necessary is significantly lower compared to other AOP technologies, and overall the use of electrical power is significantly less compared with other AOPs.

Lower Cost of OwnershipHigher Power Conversion Efficiency
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